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In Between: China’s Urbanization Plan—Sustainable Development

24 Apr

The government plans to increase the rate of urbanization. Will it be sustainable?

China is planning to increase its rate of urbanization, but will this process, which is expected to increase the economic status of millions of individuals and the state itself, be sustainable? In other words, will the process encourage environmentally sound practices and enhance well-being?

China has committed to urbanizing a large part of its population through the Twelfth Five Year Plan and this has been elaborated on in the National Plan on New Urbanization. The plan aims to allow 100 million rural migrants to urban areas to obtain urban hukou, or household registration permits. In addition, more than 90 million rural residents are expected to be moved to urban areas in the next seven years. Many (but not all) rural migrants to cities will be able to access public services, including education and social security. New city clusters will be developed from existing small towns and cities, with an emphasis on concurrent industrialization and technological improvements.

The plan proposes to address ecological conservation, endeavouring to bring about environmentally sustainable development. Yet, given China’s track record in this area, analysts are rightly concerned that urbanization will lead to destruction of the environment. While China is attempting to restrict growth of mega cities—a positive move in terms of containing the negative impacts of urban sprawl—intense environmental pressure will be placed on the regional city clusters that are to be developed. Rapid urbanization in recent years has, after all, resulted in an increase in consumption of fossil fuels, soil pollution, water pollution, and creation of waste. The type of development that has occurred has been far from environmentally sustainable; air in some cities is outside pollution limits set by the World Health Organization, and most of the country’s rivers are contaminated with pollutants.

What is more, although raising rural migrants’ hukou status will most likely enhance the well-being of these urban residents, it is not clear that those who are moved from rural to urban areas by the plan itself will be appropriately compensated for their land holdings. The protection of farmers’ rights is framed as something that should be reinforced but that is left up to local officials to fulfil. In the past, farmers have had their land taken from them, often with insufficient monetary compensation, for the construction of factories or infrastructure. Concern remains that farmers will continue to be shafted in the urbanization process.

Still, the larger shape of the plan is conducive to sustainable development. Discouraging mega cities, promoting growth of existing small urban clusters, preserving arable land, and allowing rural migrants access to urban services and jobs will limit urban sprawl and bolster the livelihoods of millions of existing disenfranchised residents. The World Bank has advised on and promoted China’s urbanization plan, and this is evident in the focus on humans and the environment

The plan outline looks good, but the devil, as always, is in the details. Will the environment really be protected? Will increased urbanization lead to a larger carbon footprint for the newly urbanized residents, particularly since one goal of urbanization is to increase domestic consumption? Will local governments protect farmers’ land rights when they often have not in the past? Will there be sufficient provision of services, such as a waste and water management when these services already fall short in many regions? The promises of the plan, coupled with inability to support these same policies in many regions, gives rise to doubt over whether the urbanization plan can indeed be implemented in a sustainable way.

Further, China’s urbanization process is already underway. This has taken place in several different ways, through constructing residences on the outskirts of large cities, through building up small and medium sized cities, and through construction of new cities. Some difficulties have been encountered, in terms of attracting people to new cities and resulting in existence of “ghost towns,” or in attracting sufficient industry and employment to newly populated areas, as in Shaanxi province, where rural residents resettled in urban areas have found themselves jobless. Although the Shaanxi urbanization process has resulted in part in the creation of ecological farmland towns, it is still too soon to tell whether the impacts of urbanization will be altogether environmentally sustainable.

China faces a difficult task in increasing urbanization—essentially, some analysts view China as under-urbanized, in comparison to Western nations, while others view China as over-urbanized in its struggle to care for its vast urban population. How can these two views be compromised? Given an increase in urbanization, will the country indeed be able to implement sustainable development, as it claims it will but heretofore has been unable to achieve? Based on past performance, the likelihood of China’s urbanization process falling into the sustainable category is low, but hopes are high. We hope to be pleasantly surprised.

Regards,
Dea

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Jika Istrimu Seorang ‘Urban Regional Planner’

22 Mar

Dear lelaki yang akan menjadi suamiku.

Aku adalah seorang planner, mungkin kamu belum begitu tahu profesiku ini. Aku adalah seorang yang menggunakan ilmu untuk merencanakan wilayah dan kota, termasuk bagian administrasi lebih besar atau kecil lainnya. Aku adalah bagian dari engineer, ya “kerjaku” seperti engineer lainnya. Begitulah deskripsi singkat profesi ku, tapi mungkin tak begitu mudah untuk memahami “keterbiasaan” ku nanti. Jika istrimu seorang Planner maka pahamilah ini.

Aku termasuk wanita yang akan berlama-lama duduk menghadap layar laptop. Tangan kananku memang mouse dan tatapan mataku fokus pada kotak-kotak persil peta yang ku buat untuk wilayah yang akan aku rencanakan. Di meja kerjaku akan banyak kertas-kertas ukuran A3 hingga A0 yang berwarna warni menggambarkan peta analisisku tentang suatu wilayah. Maklumilah nanti jika akan begitu banyak coretan hasil analisisku atau desain rencanaku yang berjatuhan di lantai.

Aku adalah wanita yang terbiasa tidur larut malam atau jika sedang buruknya, mungkin aku tidak tidur bermalam-malam. Tidak sayang, aku bukan wanita yang tidur larut malam karena sedang menonton youtube atau menonton film korea, atau hanya untuk mengupdate sosial media. Aku adalah wanita yang sibuk mengetik di keyboard laptop membuat ratusan lembar deskripsi, analisis, hingga rencana yang menjadi “kebanggaan” ku kelak jika terealisasi. Ngantuk? tentu saja, sejak awal kuliah hingga sekarang, teman baik ku bergadang adalah kopi, kadang tidak secangkir, melainkan bercangkir-cangkir. Maksudnya tidak lain agar aku tetap terjaga, iya, itu tidak sehat bukan? karena itu aku meminta, jika istrimu seorang Planner jadilah teman baiknya untuk bergadang nanti, “jadilah” secangkir kopi yang membuatnya terjaga dan tertawa.

Aku adalah wanita yang terbiasa hidup dibawah tekanan deadline, mungkin terlihat aku tidak bisa memanajemen waktuku, karena pagi sampai malam banyak kuhabiskan untuk pekerjaan. Tapi sebenarnya justru aku ingin menghargai waktu untuk menyelesaikan tanggung jawabku, tanggung jawabku menata kota-kota itu.

Jika istrimu seorang Planner, mungkin nanti tak jarang kau lihat istrimu memegang kepalanya dengan kedua tangannya, bertumpu diatas meja, sambil kepalanya menunduk, jidatnya berkerut, lalu dia menghela nafas panjang. Mungkin dia sedikit berbicara, lalu lebih banyak diam, tak jarang dia mengucek kedua matanya dengan telapak tangannya, mengertilah.. sedang ada beban pikirannya, mungkin rencananya tidak sejalan dengan realisasinya, mungkin konsep dan penataan yang direncanakan tidak sejalan dengan pemimpin “wilayah dan kotanya” atau mungkin dia sedang berada di bawah tekanan politik –yang paling dihindari dari planner– karena akan mempengaruhi perencanaannya, perencanaan yang bukan didasarkan pada kebutuhan kotanya, melainkan kebutuhan penguasanya, bahkan perencanaan yang bisa menjadikan wilayah dan kota tersebut menjadi yang bukan semestinya.

Jika istrimu seorang Planner, jangan heran jika kau tak lihatnya di kesuksesan suatu kota. Tak pernah kau dengar namanya disebut di suatu pembicaraan, bahkan tak pernah ada media yang menceritakan bagaimana cerita di balik “kesuksesan” kota. Karena tak banyak tahu akan profesinya, mungkin yang akan ditanya orang banyak adalah siapa walikotanya? Siapa arsiteknya? Siapa tenaga sipilnya? atau siapa konsultan yang ada di balik suatu keberhasilan kota, karena tak jarang orang menganggap profesi istrimu itu tidak ada. Tidak ada yang tahu perjuangan istrimu, selain Tuhan, timnya dan kamu yang selalu tahu kerja kerasnya itu. Jika istrimu seorang Planner katakanlah “Aku tahu bagaimana kerja kerasmu” mungkin kata-kata itu bisa mengusir lelah dan letihnya selama itu.

Jika istrimu seorang planner, banggalah, karena kau baru saja menikahi sesorang yang sudah biasa hidup “susah” yang bisa hidup dengan “kesemerautan” lingkungan kerjanya. Karena dia salah satu pemecah masalah, ya, dia sudah terbisaa berhadapan dengan masalah-masalah dan dia pecahkan dengan idenya. Dia wanita yang sudah terbisaa hidup mandiri, yang bisa menempatkan diri. Dia tetap wanita yang bisa berdandan jika merasa butuh, dia tetap Ingat ibadah meski dia terlihat tidak ada waktu, dia yang masih bisa menjadi makmum dalam sholat-sholat mu, yang masih ada waktu untuk kau dan anak-anakmu karena pekerjaannya yang tidak “terikat” waktu, yang masih sempat membuatkan sarapan dan memasak untuk anak-anakmu.

Jika istri mu seorang planner, mungkin catatan kecil yang harus kau lakukan adalah, duduklah dengannya di suatu sore, bawalah secangkir kopi yang menjadi teman hidupnya selama ia bergadang dulu, lalu berbincanglah. Rencanakan masa depan bersamanya, karena dia Planner untuk kotamu dan partner Planner untuk keluargamu. Lalu peluklah dia, dan katakan “menjadi Planner itu tidak mudah, karena merencanakan itu hanyalah tugas Tuhan, kamu bisa merencanakan tapi Tuhan yang menentukan”.

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Reblogged from Mita Lestari

Majoring Urban and Regional Planning

Brawijaya University

Defining Sustainability

24 Feb

Over the past few decades, the understanding that an intricate, interdependent and global relationship exists among environmental protection, economic growth and social equity has become increasingly prevalent. Today, the concept of sustainability is found everywhere from corporate mission statements to job descriptions to university course names. But, has the concept become so vague and ubiquitous that it has lost all useful meaning? Will we know sustainability when we see it?

Sustainability is not just a box to tick or an award to collect. It’s not an end-goal, but rather an ongoing process that involves constant and balanced attention. And, it’s not a simple task. For example, a research conduct by M. Whitten examines how local authorities make decisions about urban green space, particularly within the constraint of their need to provide additional housing built in a dense, compact way. While both urban green space and compact development contribute to urban sustainability, the two concepts have inherent tensions. This demonstrates that making decisions about sustainability can be complex – the choices aren’t always black and white.

As we try to understand the causes of things in order to understand how our futures can be better, or more sustainable, we must also understand that the causes of things cause changes in things, constantly in a dynamic world. The simplicity of the concept is its direct association with making the world a better place to live. That’s quite difficult to accomplish collectively though.

I think an issue with the concept is that too many entities exploiting the word see it as black and white and not a type of mental awareness to all activities. For example, a firm incorporates a recycling program, uses efficient lighting technology, replaces its windows and perhaps incorporates combined heat and power and walla, we’re now LEED recognized, we can now label ourselves as sustainable, let the trendiness of it improve profits and marketability, and relax with our everyday consumer behavior behind closed doors.

Sustainability is, in my view, a very simple concept applied to such a broad range of activities that it applies to virtually everything which causes complexity because there is no blueprint or single solution. This causes the concept to perhaps infringe on certain personal lifestyles. Psychologically, people are generally against change when it means they need to change the way they live, certainly when it means giving up something they enjoy doing or breaking habits in the name of sustainability when an individual action is perceived as so meaningless in the overall picture.

An analogy is voting. Many people don’t vote because they think their individual vote is so meaningless that the outcome will be the same whether they vote or not. So the sustainability concept is compatible with global dynamism but not necessarily with any single static “solution.” Therefore, all this debate about what sustainability means is actually, in my opinion, quite clear. Implementing collective, constant multitudes of contributions in such a complex world of conflicting activities is perhaps a far more important focus for debates because of its complexity of all actions and willingness required to produce meaningful results. The word itself is simple to understand. How to align its concept with constant commitment towards a true balance between its three corners is the challenge in an ever-increasing world population full of differing social, financial, political, and cultural priorities. Sustainability is a global process in which eventual successes begin with individual commitment.

So, the next time you read about sustainability or you are involved in a debate or discussion about the topic, don’t just nod robotically in support. Join the conversation. Engage others. Think about what sustainability means to you.

Regards,
Dea

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Last term Design: Tengger – Java Ethnic Park

16 Apr

desain tampak depan-kecil

desain tampak kiri-kecil

desain tampak kanan-kecil

URBAN SPRAWL: PRO AND CON (In Defense of Urban Sprawl)

11 Jan

The term “urban sprawl” has a bad ring to it. The name reinforces the view that metropolitan growth is ugly, inefficient, and the cause of traffic congestion and environmental harm. Before we decide we are against urban sprawl, however, we should be clear about what it is and why we do not like it. Once we look at its specific characteristics, we can recognize their causes and what, if anything, to do about them.

My study of metropolitan growth indicates that three kinds of development are typical of what we call “urban sprawl.” They include: leapfrog development, strip or ribbon development, and low-density, single-dimensional development. Let us look at each type in turn.

Continue reading

Principle of Universal Design

16 Dec

1. Equitable Use —-> to be equally usable by all.
Facilities should be used by every person without complain.

2. Flexibility in Use —-> to be flexible for use
Facilities should be selected based on individuals choice and ability.

3. Simple, Intuitive Use —-> to be simple and intuitively usable.
Facility design should be easily understood by users without regarding their experience, language comprehension, and concentration.

4. Perceptible information —-> to have perceptible information
Design of facilities should provide effective information to the users without regarding surrounding conditions and the user’s capabilities.

5. Tolerance for Error —-> to have sufficient tolerance
Facility design should be made to have sufficient tolerance to allow unexpected happenings and accidents.

6. Low Physical Effort —-> Not to require much physical effort for facility use.
Facilities should be designed to require only minimum effort to use.

7. Size and Space for Approach and Use —-> to have sufficient approach sections and spaces.
Facilities should be designed to have sufficient approach sections and spaces for efficient use without regarding users’ physical strength.

Dasar-dasar dan Analisis Lokasi Kegiatan Industri

2 Oct

Industri pada dasarnya merupakan kegiatan manusia dalam mengolah sumber daya yang ditujukan untuk kemakmuran manusia itu sendiri. Bentuk kegiatan industri dapat berlangsung dalam berbagai bidang kegiatan, antara lain industri pengolahan bahan mentah menjadi bahan setengah jadi dan pengolahan bahan setengah jadi menjadi barang jadi. Pada dasarnya keberadaan sebuah lokasi industri disuatu wilayah dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor. Faktor-faktor tersebut antara lain, bahan mentah, sarana transportasi, dan pemasaran.

PEMILIHAN LOKASI PABRIK

Pemilihan lokasi pada dasarnya menentukan suatu tempat atau lokasi yang tepat untuk suatu usaha, kegiatan dengan tujuan tertentu yang memperhitungkan kelebihan dan kekurangan lokasi tersebut. Lokasi perusahaan adalah suatu tempat dimana perusahaan melakukan aktivitasnya. Lokasi pabrik dimaksudkan sebagai lokasi dimana fasilitas-fasilitas produksi diletakkan.

Fasilitas produksi adalah sesuatu yang dibangun, diadakan atau diinvestasikan guna melaksanakan aktivitas produksi. Lokasi pabrik yang paling ideal adalah terletak pada suatu tempat yg akhirnya mampu memberikan total biaya produksi yang rendah dan keuntungan yg maksimal. Agar tidak terjadi dampak negatif dari masyarakat, dalam memilih lokasi pabrik harus memperhatikan kelayakan aspek hukum, sosial, ekonomi dan budaya. Penentuan lokasi strategis pabrik harus memperhatikan dua faktor, yakni:

  1. Faktor primer, yaitu bahan baku dan bahan pembantu, tenaga kerja, sarana transportasi, listrik, air, komunikasi dan letak pasar sasaran.
  2. Faktor sekunder, yaitu iklim, keadaan tanah, kemungkinan pengembangan dan kebijakan pemerintah.

Tujuan kedua faktor di atas adalah mengurangi pemborosan dalam hal pembangunan gedung, pengadaan peralatan, kebutuhan modal kerja.

Jenis data penentuan lokasi pabrik :

  1. Data kuantitatif, seperti jumlah dan biaya bahan baku, bahan tambahan, tenaga kerja, transportasi, listrik, air, alat komunikasi, bangunan dan peralatan.
  2. Data kualitatif, seperti kualitas sarana transfortasi, iklim dan kebijakan pemerintah.

Dasar-dasar pemilihan lokasi pabrik :

  1. Pemilihan daerah atau teritorial secara umum.
  2. Pemilihan berdasarkan size dari jumlah penduduk dan lahan secara khusus.

Kondisi umum yg berpengaruh dalam proses penetuan lokasi pabrik:

  1. Lokasi di kota besar (city location)
  • Diperlukan tenaga kerja terampil dengan jumlah yg besar.
  • Proses produksi tergantung pada fasilitas-fasilitas seperti listrik, gas, dan lain-lain.
  • Kontak dengan pemasok dekat dan cepat.
  • Sarana transportasi dan komunikasi mudah didapatkan.
  • Ekspansi sulit dilakukan dan harga tanah mahal.
  • Banyak persoalan tenaga kerja.
  1. Lokasi di pinggir kota (suburban location)
  • Semi skilled atau female labor mudah diperoleh.
  • Menghindari pajak yang berat.
  • Tenaga kerja tinggal dekat dengan lokasi pabrik.
  • Populasi tidak besar sehingga masalah lingkungan tidak banyak timbul.
  1. Lokasi jauh di luar kota (country location)
  • Lahan yg luas sangat diperlukan (ekspansi yang akan datang).
  • Pajak terendah lebih dikehendaki.
  • Tenaga kerja tidak terampil dalam jumlah besar lebih dikehendaki.
  • Upah buruh lebih rendah mudah didapatkan.
  • Baik untuk proses manufakturing produk-produk yg berbahaya.

Dari sekian banyak faktor penentuan lokasi pabrik, pada dasarnya penentuan pabrik ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor lokasi industri bergantung pada SKALA PRODUKSI (biaya per unit dibandingkan dengan jumlah produk), KETERKAITAN (vertikal dan horizontal), BIAYA TRANSPORTASI (menghubungkan produksi dengan pasar dan biaya per unit dibandingkan dengan jarak yang ditempuh), LINGKUNGAN BISNIS (kebijakan pemerintah dan lokasi pesaing), FAKTOR KESEJARAHAN (apabila di suatu tempat memiliki nilai kesejarahan yang dapat menambah permintaan produk dari pabrik tersebut), dan SELERA PERORANGAN maupun INDIVIDU (berupa budaya ataupun kepercayaan yang dipegang oleh orang yang akan membangun suatu pabrik).

Pemilihan lokasi industri juga memiliki langkah-langkah agar lokasi yang dipertimbangkan merupakan lokasi yang tepat bagi pendiri pabrik. Prosedur dalam pemilihan lokasi industri

  1. 1.   Plant Analysis

Di dalam plant analisis yang dilakukan adalah mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor apa yang mempengaruhi lokasi industri dari yang tidak berpengaruh sampai yang paling berpengaruh. Selanjutnya hal yang dilakukan adalah penentuan keputusan lokasi industri. Apakah sebaiknya memilih loksai industri baru untuk dibangun pabrik ataukah lebih baik jika melakukan pemindahan dari lokasi industri yang lama (relokasi). Setelah itu, menganalisis kondisi lingkungan lokasi industri yang akan dibangun pabrik. Kondisi lingkungan yang dimaksud adalah keberadaan pesaing dan kemampuan daya saing yang dimiliki. Hal terakhir dalam tahapan ini adalah menentukan opsi-opsi lokasi industri sebagai alternatif.

  1. 2.   Field Analysis

Di dalam field analysis yang dilakukan adalah melakukan observasi lapangan dari semua opsi-opsi lokasi industri yang telah di-list di bagian plant analysis. Pada tahap ini biasanya dapat ditentukan dimana lokasi industri yang paling potensial.

KESIMPULAN

Pada dasarnya faktor – faktor yang mempengaruhi pemilihan lokasi dapat dikelompokkan menjadi faktor – faktor yang berkaitan dengan input dan output produksi, faktor – faktor yang berkaitan dengan proses produksi dan faktor – faktor yang berkaitan dengan kondisi lingkungan luar.

Agar diperoleh suatu lokasi industri yang tepat untuk dibangun sebuah pabrik, maka diperlukan analisis dengan tahapan-tahapan tertentu yaitu plant analysis dan field analysis.

Post-Industrial City: Detroit-Michigan

2 Oct

  “We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” Albert Einstein can be credited with that quote. He was a pretty smart guy, and the quote seems pretty obvious, but for some reason so many seem to keep using a bad process in hopes of a good result. It seems like Michigan and Detroit are guilty of this.
  How long has the auto industry been in decline? How long has manufacturing been in decline? A lot longer than this recession. How long have we known that a good education is a great predictor of economic well being, and how much does an educated workforce contribute to to economic growth? A long time, and a lot, respectively.

  By now, I thought that there would be a lot less about Detroit to be found in the news. Instead it seems like articles just keep coming. I’ve found I’m a bit behind on consuming Detroit related news, and articles. Here are a few interesting pieces I’ve come across lately:

  Michigan has an inflated view of the quality of its schools according to Michigan Radio. In other words Michigan’s schools aren’t doing very well, and neither are it’s students. The inevitable, looming budget cuts should help.
        Also, people just keep leaving Michigan. The upside is this has helped the unemployment rate. This can’t be good for the long term. Housing prices won’t be going up in most of metro Detroit if a trend of declining population continues. The same can be said for services, retail, and a host of other business sectors.

  It’s amazing that the debate over mass transit continues. If you read the comments it’s apparent that some believe are roads are not only not subsidized, but are actually profitable, and any other form of subsidized transportation is just the tip of the socialism iceberg.

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  Michigan has 800,000 less people employed people now than it did in 2000, has lost half of it’s manufacturing jobs in ten years, and has a $2 billion shortfall. So what does an MSU economist think? Does it matter?

  Apparently, “there is more money to made in tearing Detroit down, around 2011, than building it back up…” That’s according to a New York Times review of Paul Clemen’s new book called, Punching Out, One Year in a Closing Auto Plant. Some interesting quotes that should bolster many people’s stereotypes of auto workers include, “I drank 32 beers the other night”, and “Hell, I don’t even know what e-mail is.” Oh, and of course he hates, like so many others, French photographers who come to shoot “ruin porn”. I hate the term “ruin porn”.

  And yet more hating on photographers of “ruin porn”.  The argument that photographers are contributing to Detroit’s problems is most certainly a red herring. As if Dorthea Lange contributed to the Great Depression. People will say bad things about Detroit, photographers will show bad things about it, and the media will report on bad things that happen in it.
  The author admits that photography of abandonment may raise awareness, but says, “but raising awareness is only useful if it provokes a next step, a move toward trying to fix a problem”. Using that requirement, all of those photographers who showed us the horrors of the wars, and other atrocities committed around the world, could have done some good, if only they’d come up with some solutions.
        Is it time for observers of Detroit to move on to new subjects? Perhaps. But it is definitely time for Detroit supporters to move beyond what others have to say about, and show of, Detroit. Photographers will photograph disasters, man made or natural, as long as they exist.

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  But, according to the author, at least Johnny Knoxville loves Detroit. There’s not doubt Detroit’s got some pretty cool things going on. It’s not enough for me to move back, nor most people for that matter. But, for those who do move there, and do something special, I’m willing to give credit where credit is due.

  Until house and building are no longer abandoned faster than good things happen, the “bad” talk, photos, and reporting will continue. You can see the full film on Vimeo. Interestingly the film states near the beginning, “The film uses a strongly subjective narrative, with no aim to point out answers to the challenges Detroit is currently facing.” Uh, oh…more artists who point out Detroit’s flaws without trying to fix them.

  Andrew Moore is a photographer mentioned in the above piece in The New Republic. I like his work, and found this video to be pretty interesting. Another interesting video is Views of Detroit by three Danish students.

  And just as it seems things couldn’t get any worse, Mayor Bing has announced no Robocop statue…What else does Detroit have without Robocop?

  One industry that does seem to be doing well, is the film industry, and of course we can’t have that. At least one politician wants to rain on that parade. Not that I’m against a flat tax, but if we’re talking about removing incentives, we’re going to be affecting a lot more than the film industry. Might want to think through the consequences before making that recommendation…unless you’re a Libertarian of course.

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  I don’t understand why this complaint keeps coming up. It’s like some in Michigan just don’t get it. Why is anyone surprised that a company is having trouble finding qualified tech workers in Delta Township, Michigan? First of all Michigan is not a hotbed of tech workers. And secondly, Delta Township is going to be even less of a tech worker haven. If you look at a map of Delta Township, you’ll see that’s it borders Lansing (no metropolis mind you), and just to the west is farmland.
        If you need tech workers, you’d best be located where tech workers live. Michigan may have a high unemployment rate, but if it’s anything like the rest of the country good tech workers aren’t having a very hard time finding work. Being located in Delta Township won’t make finding good tech workers any easier.

  According to a study from MSU, “build it and they will comedoesn’t quite work out. It turns out that the people come first, then the jobs. But why would people come? That’s the question. The study is talking more about business travelers, particularly those traveling by air (strange study), than the creative types Richard Florida often talks about.
         Interestingly, the article says, “the finding does not contradict more direct job-creation strategies, including the construction of office and retail spaces”. Huh? So build, don’t build…what? Of course business travelers won’t come to metro Detroit without a reason. The article also says that the cities least likely to benefit include Detroit. Not so helpful…

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        I have an idea. I’ve mentioned it before. Not that it is a new idea, or isn’t already happening, but there is a driven, entrepreneurial, and hardworking population that could reinvigorate Detroit. The group of people would be called immigrants. I know I’ve mentioned it before, and I’ve also linked to an article on Model D about Steve Tobocman before as well, but it’s still a really good idea.
        Model D has another article by Steve regarding the importance of embracing immigration in Detroit. I personally no some who have trouble with this idea, because gosh darn it, they aren’t just like me. Never mind, that their own ancestors were immigrants too. And they weren’t always welcome either. They were different too.

  I recently came across a couple of interesting maps. The first shows the best and worst metro areas for jobs. Of course the Detroit metro area was one of the top five worst. The second is the map of “State Superlatives. The bad superlative for Michigan is “unemployment”. Not surprising. And the good superlative is “best freshwater access”.
        There’s no denying that one either. Michigan has got freshwater, and lots of it. The third map shows the concentrations of adults with college degrees. While Michigan looks better than, say, Louisiana, it certainly looks worse than states such as Colorado, or areas on either coast.

And finally a couple of arguments for cities. In any discussion about urban vs. suburban vs. rural living, you’ll find many naysayers who have nothing good to say about cities. Say what you will about them, they are central to the economies of pretty much all nations.
Not surprisingly, without a strong city, metro Detroit is, and has struggled for a long time. Turns out concentrations of smart, educated people are good for innovation, and innovation is good for the economy. Who’d have thought?

topic for today: Planned and Unplanned Cities

26 Sep

         Hi guys! nice to write here again. lately I find some good-listening song. one of them is Save You by Simple Plan. nice lol :D. but, nothing to do with that song nor its lyrics in this post. I just want to share an interesting topic that my lecturer have taught me this afternoon in class.

          A method call ‘student center‘ have make us, a.k.a the students, to be more active, giving us chance to speak up our minds and of course, being appreciated. a simple way to do that was through discussion session or simply debating others. that’s exactly what happened in my class this afternoon. my lecturer, her name is Mrs. Nurini and she was teaching the city’s morphology and architecture, was explained about “planned city” and “unplanned city“. She explicates its definition, mentions some of its characteristics and asks back to us checking whether we paid our attention or not. just as usual.

          After another part of lesson being taught, she, again, open a query’ session. a response popped up from back rows. due to its subject, it consists of two questions.  first, he asked about which one is better, planned city or the unplanned city. if you choose that a planned city is better than the unplanned city, you have to give an idea of how to tide over the unplanned city. or else, you say that unplanned city was better then you have to give a logic explanation about it. the last question is which one of those is better for being implemented in Indonesia.

          tik tok tik tok.. finally, one of my classmates was going to answer it in the first place. he said that he prefer to planned city than unplanned city, because it’s more well-organized, the other point is that planned city needs a planner like us to create the master plan, form its shapes, and manage the essential rules. so its could one of our benefits in the future, lol 😀 and his response about other question is that he think the condition of Indonesia itself already good. just need a better solution to change it to be somewhat even more better.

          I took the second chance of speaking for debating him. because I have a different point of view. in some cases, the planned city probably become a very nice idea to make and applied. based on the theories itself, this kind of perfect-looking city, purposely set a high priority to efficiency and economic value. a good idea for many specific places as in Chicago, Brasília, the federal capital of Brazil, Rotterdam, main seaport of the Netherlands, Chandigarh and many more. you can see the list of other planned cities by clicking the first link appear next. http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-planned-cities. but certainly not in Indonesia. a country which divided into some big islands and uncounted small islands. a place with so many different cultures and religions and beliefs. where the people were living more into social-religious.

          Well, for me, the planned city is a well-build-architectural city. a beautiful one to see, but its benefits were depends. in this globalization era, despite of the fact that world’s today population is extremely increased, a planned city which offer a ready-to-use infrastructures and public services, great road-connectivity, a strong land use plan also its procedure and many more, has more than reasons I mention before to attract lotta people to come and start living in that place, because its facilities and its convenient were promising. but merely in several decades it will growth into inappropriate shape and doesn’t fit anymore with the original blue print. in the end, because the lack of ideal-place-for-living, those planned city would become just like the unplanned one.

          Moreover, referring to the presentation, the other shortage of planned city is that it has monotone traits and less ability to conciliate with the landscapes and the various elevations when it being implemented which clearly has made it hardly applied in Indonesia due to its multiform landscapes and topographies. That’s why I favored the unplanned city. citizen, however, due to the instinct of human that given by God, will accomplish their daily living needs, such as transportation, infrastructures, public facilities, food, etc. exactly as it did in Indonesia. else, the unplanned city perhaps also give contributions for some new land using in an isolated places.

          Enough  about mine, there is still one other opinion, that stated by my other classmates. a boy and a girl. but their idea was merely the same. they explain about the correlation between specific conditions toward the needs of the area and the citizens itself. it means that both planned city and unplanned city were in the same important level. some things that need to be considered was what a city needs – really needs – to make the citizen feel pleased also convenient. furthermore, the environmental carrying capacity also became one more essential factor that need to be considered on deciding whether a city will need to be planned or not.

C O N C L U S I O N

          Well, decision on applying the planned city or the unplanned city -once again – is depends. there are a lot of aspects that have to be considered. both from the physical aspects, such as environmental carrying capacity, topography; and its social aspects, such as traditions, religions and beliefs, and more.

          but, surely, in Indonesia the concept of unplanned city was preferable. it suits our diversity that we have in ethnics, cultures, and habits as well. better than the planned city did. however, creating and planning a new city is still possible to be done in Indonesia. especially in a new and large area that freely available and have an adequate resources for surviving the citizens living and fulfill their needs.

references:
http://visionbuilds.homestead.com/A-Well-Planned-City.html
http://www.answers.com/topic/city-planning
http://www.newtowninstitute.org/spip.php?article6 

Public transport, essential problem to consider

20 Sep

          Although we all have an image of what we think of as being public transport, when we come to define it, it is not quite easy. we may think of public transport as any means of passenger transport available to anyone without restriction as to membership of any group, provided that the conditions of the operator are met, including payment. It may be publicly or privately owned and will run regularly, usually to a timetable.

          Such a broad definition would include all kinds of localized transport such as moving pavements at airports for example, cable cars at ski resorts or in other mountainous areas, small-scale monorails or other railways at leisure parks, horses and carriages in some towns with a substantial tourist industry. These kinds of transport may be important locally but here I have restricted to the sort of public transport for longer journeys. In effect, this means buses and railways.

          There is a widening gap between what we expect of public transport and what can be delivered, given the circumstances in which we seem to expect it to operate. Our expectations for travel are increasing, both in quantity and in the standarts of speed, reliability and comfort. Out-of-town shopping, leisure parks and business parks all involve more travel than did their predecessors. Cars are becoming more like mobile sitting rooms with all the home comforts such as CD player and telephone. To give all this up for a bus or train is asking a lot.

          We all still recognize that there are many people whom public transport is essential, particularly amongst the elderly, children and teenagers and others who have only limited access or no access to a car. Less obvious is the dependence of our cities for their existence on high capacity public transport. Yet there is still a prevalent view that local public transport, especially buses, is only for those who do not have a car, a welfare service for the needy. We still prefer to spend our money on cars rather than public transport, knowing that we cannot all have unrestricted use of them. But we are slowly and patchily beginning to realize that we will have to face up to the reality that we must now find ways of restricting use of the private car more severely, and that will involve some transfer to public transport.

          Public transport has suffered badly from the imposition of political dogma. Some parts of our public transport network are underfunded. Elsewhere, public money is being wasted. Some of out transport policies conflict and undermine the financial viability of public transport leading to poor value for money. Public transport needs to be coordinated and planned together with land uses under the Town and Country Planning legislation. The plain truth is that since the coming into force of the Transport Act 1985, no-one plans transport or even public transport as a whole. Not only has no-one the duty to do so, no authority even has the power to do so should they think it advisable.

          By international comparisons, our public transport operators are on the whole quite efficient, given the unhelpful legislative and political context in which they have to operate. Even so, a great deal of improvement is possible without throwing a lot of money at our public transport networks. Certainly there are many opportunities to get better value for money at the same levels of public expenditure.

          This post is about how local public transport can be made to address what will continue to be asked of it, about how public transport can be made a less unacceptable alternative to the private car than it is now. It is intended for officials, politicians and others interested in the land use/local transport conundrum, about the understanding and reconciliation of what at present is a misfit between demand for movement and the possibilities of achieving it. These should certainly include town planners and those working for passenger transport authorities and in fact anyone concerned with policy making and project appraisal for local public transport.

          If passenger transport planning is about arranging for people to have accessibility to where they want to go, easily, quickly and in large numbers, we have been performing far below our best for a long time. This few clues as to how passenger transport planning can be nudged a little closer to the ideal.

Inspired from Public Transport Today by Barry J. Simpson

a Lesson from Curitiba, Brazil

30 Jul

          inspired by a post from one of my friend in facebook, which was talking about a city from the other side of world named Curitiba, in Brazil, I was suddenly wondering of what happened to Curitiba until finally became what it’s today. I think that this will be something interesting to discuss. and maybe, the idea of what had happen in Curitiba could be implemented to solve a lot of essential issues in Indonesia which is supposed to be our duties, as a future planner-soon-to-be.

          well, due to the post from my friend, Curitiba City was the capital city of the State of Paraná, which based on agricultural mechanization from the 1950s to the 1980s, has experienced some of the highest growth in the country with population increases reaching an estimated 5.7% a year during those decades. Curitiba listed as city’s most rundown and most jammed in Brazil in the 1970s. but only within about three decades, believe it or not, Curitiba was awarded the predicate of the most innovative city in the world, in 1996. whereas in 2007, Curitiba came third on the list of the 15 Green Cities in the World in the American magazine Grist. many of municipal governments in various worlds glanced at Curitiba.

Part of Curitiba

          with a network of almost 30 parks and urban forested areas, Curitiba is the greenest capital in southern Brazil. the city has succeeded in introducing a Green Exchange employment program to the benefit of the environment and socially deprived groups. low income families living in the favelas, shantytowns out of reach of the city’s dustcarts, can exchange their rubbish bags for bus tickets and food. children can exchange reusable waste with school articles, chocolate, toys and tickets to entertainment events.

          the project results in less household waste in the streets as well as in sensitive areas such as rivers and parks. in combination with other initiatives, 70% of Curitiba’s waste is recycled by the city’s inhabitants. the city’s recycling of paper alone accounts for the equivalent of 1,200 trees a day.

Part of Curitiba

          the city has a well defined policy and strong commitment towards preserving its woods and parks. in the past 20 years, more than 1.5 million tress have been planted in the city. the ratio of open space to inhabit has increased from 0.5 square metres to 52 square meters which means that Curitiba has one of the highest averages of green space per inhabit among urban areas worldwide.

          the Guarda Verde or we may say “the green guard” which was a municipal corporation, protects and maintains the green areas. notes: the guards also keep the public informed about environmental issues and are trained for the first aid. those show us of how to implement the rules while continuously keeping it on guard. a good idea which I believe was suitable if adopted for Indonesia.

Part of Curitiba

          Another innovative feature of Curitiba’s green spaces is their integration with food control. the park not only provide recreational and aesthetic value but many have artificial lakes which provide flood control for the entire city. each park is equipped with information centers on the local environment and ecology. a 90-miles (145 kilometres) bike path mostly through the urban parks is nearly complete.

          One of the key lessons from Curitiba’s experience is the importance of establishing a close relationship between the public transport system, the land use legislation and the hierarchy of the urban road network. this can provide an integrated framework that can be used as a guidance and development tool.

          Finally, I would love to say that Curitiba has give us many things that is worth to be learned. especially for a planner-soon-to-be like me. it’s just an idea of how to represent an excellent and an outstanding mixing between a simple but smart idea with the cooperation among the strong government, private corporations, and the citizens which is had worked very well.

          Curitiba has shown that a city with more than 1 million inhabits does not necessarily need a “metro” style underground transport system or a light rail system and that surface solutions based on buses could be developed incrementally at a much lower cost.

  

          The city’s solid waste program has also shown that the recovery from household wastes of recyclable element does not need an expensive mechanical separation plant, if a city transforms every household into a pre-separation plant with curbside collection schemes.

         Stephen Leahy, an observer of the environment and agriculture, in his article on the site sustainabletimes, stated that every city, rich or poor, can empower citizens to solve environmental problems. But the first thing that is not easy to do is bring up the motivation to change themselves. Curitiba was able to realize and enjoy it throughout the last 25 years by a political will and strong leadership.

 

Curitiba has trebled in size in just 25 years and now has a population of 1.6 million. With careful planning and an eye on the future, however, the authorities have created a city that is an inspiration for city planners everywhere.

Curitiba

 

 

 

 

danke, 😀

 

 

 

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